Factors responsible for inammation are classied into ve different groups, as infective agents, immunological agents, physical agent, chemical agent, and inert material. Inammation is a protective response by the body to variety of etiologic agents. Currently available agents include use of different classes of nonsteroidal antiinammatory agents like nonopioid analgesics, nonselective COX inhibitors. Cannabis is primarily used to manage back pain, sleeping disorders, depression, injury or accidentgenerated pain, and multiple sclerosis.Psychoactive and nonpsychoactive constituents, namely, deltatetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol, respectively, are major components found in cannabis extract that exhibit in vivo analgesic activity.Cannabis can be administered by smoking, vaporization, and by oral route; however, smoking or vaporization releases high concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol into blood within minutes.Neuropathic pain occurs in different disease conditions like HIV, cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis.Nowadays, researchers are more interested in use of natural diseasemodifying agents as they signicantly come up with less toxic effects and high potency.This chapter mostly focuses on nonpsychotic effects of cannabis, so CBD is a compound of our interest.However, currently CBD is under extensive study for its antiinammatory activity.The high lipophilic nature of CBD governs the distribution pattern, and the volume of distribution is high in organs like adipose tissue, brain, and others.It shows high protein binding, and approximately of CBD binds to RBC in circulatory system.However, few studies showed side effects of CBD like decrease in drug metabolism and induction of infertility. The antiinammatory role of CBD is very crucial in the context of immunomodulation.This immunomodulatory action is a result of its action on macrophages.The antiinammatory and neuroprotective action of CBD is due to increased signaling mechanism of adenosine followed by accumulation of adenosine and reduction in uptake of adenosine.CBD acts through adenosine receptors and shows inhibitory action on MS and ILD.In MS it reduces the microglia activation by inhibiting the expression of IL, VCAM, and chemokines.In ILD it reduces inammation by decreasing the production of chemokines, TNF, and IL.CBD shows antagonist effect on cannabinoid receptors CB and CB which leads to decreaseinhibit the action of macrophages and monocytes which in turn results in reduction of oxidized lipoprotein plaque formation in the wall of artery followed by decrease in progression of atherosclerosis.CBD suppresses the release of TNF production and chemokine production by a human B cell.The effect of CBD in rheumatoid arthritis treatment is by mechanism of immunosuppression and antiinammatory responses. Starting from children to adult, ending to old persons, most of them are victimized by the severity of two categorical disease conditions.The promising antiinammatory action of CBD acts by reducing production of cytokines and inhibiting the proliferation of T cell.Some investigations of CBD on nonobese diabetic mice revealed that the incidence of development of DM is reduced from to. There is also a reduction in plasma level of proinammatory cytokines as a result of CBD treatment.The balance between the proinammatory cytokines and antiinammatory cytokines. In viral model of MS, CBD prevents expression of chemokines, and vascular cell adhesion molecule. CBD shows longlasting effect when administered at the time of infection.Additionally, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and IL protein and release of NO and IL are also reduced by CBD.